Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Asperger s Syndrome Symptoms

Asperger s Syndrome Symptoms - Before we discuss about Asperger s Syndrome Symptoms, I just want to try to looking for information about what is Asperger syndrome, after I walking around finally I found it on Wikipedia that discuss more detail about Asperger s Syndrome, and here is the information

Asperger syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder, and people with it therefore show significant difficulties in social interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical use of language are frequently reported,

Asperger syndrome is named for the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger who, in 1944, described children in his practice who lacked nonverbal communication skills, demonstrated limited empathy with their peers, and were physically clumsy. Fifty years later, it was standardized as a diagnosis, but many questions remain about aspects of the disorder. For example, there is doubt about whether it is distinct from high-functioning autism (HFA);] partly because of this, its prevalence is not firmly established.The diagnosis of Asperger's has been proposed to be eliminated, replaced by a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder on a severity scale.

The exact cause is unknown, although research supports the likelihood of a genetic basis; brain imaging techniques have not identified a clear common pathology.[ There is no single treatment, and the effectiveness of particular interventions is supported by only limited data. Intervention is aimed at improving symptoms and function. The mainstay of management is behavioral therapy, focusing on specific deficits to address poor communication skills, obsessive or repetitive routines, and physical clumsiness. Most individuals improve over time, but difficulties with communication, social adjustment and independent living continue into adulthood.

Some researchers and people with Asperger's have advocated a shift in attitudes toward the view that it is a difference, rather than a disability that must be treated or cured
Now I try to give you information about Asperger s Syndrome Symptoms
Symptoms during childhood

Parents often first notice the symptoms of Asperger's syndrome when their child starts preschool and begins to interact with other children. Children with Asperger's syndrome may:

* Not pick up on social cues and may lack inborn social skills, such as being able to read others' body language, start or maintain a conversation, and take turns talking.
* Dislike any changes in routines.
* Appear to lack empathy.
* Be unable to recognize subtle differences in speech tone, pitch, and accent that alter the meaning of others’ speech. Thus, your child may not understand a joke or may take a sarcastic comment literally. Likewise, his or her speech may be flat and difficult to understand because it lacks tone, pitch, and accent.
* Have a formal style of speaking that is advanced for his or her age. For example, the child may use the word "beckon" instead of "call" or the word "return" instead of "come back."
* Avoid eye contact or stare at others.
* Have unusual facial expressions or postures.
* Be preoccupied with only one or few interests, which he or she may be very knowledgeable about. Many children with Asperger's syndrome are overly interested in parts of a whole or in unusual activities, such as designing houses, drawing highly detailed scenes, or studying astronomy. They may show an unusual interest in certain topics such as snakes, names of stars, or dinosaurs.2
* Talk a lot, usually about a favorite subject. One-sided conversations are common. Internal thoughts are often verbalized.
* Have delayed motor development. Your child may be late in learning to use a fork or spoon, ride a bike, or catch a ball. He or she may have an awkward walk. Handwriting is often poor.
* Have heightened sensitivity and become overstimulated by loud noises, lights, or strong tastes or textures. For more information about these symptoms, see sensory integration dysfunction.

A child with one or two of these symptoms does not necessarily have Asperger’s syndrome. To be diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, a child must have a combination of these symptoms and severe trouble with social situations.

Although the condition is in some ways similar to autism, a child with Asperger's syndrome typically has normal language and intellectual development. Also, those with Asperger's syndrome typically make more of an effort than those with autism to make friends and engage in activities with others.

Symptoms during adolescent and teen years

Most symptoms persist through the teen years. And although teens with Asperger's can begin to learn those social skills they lack, communication often remains difficult. They will probably continue to have difficulty "reading" others' behavior
Your teen with Asperger's syndrome (like other teens) will want friends but may feel shy or intimidated when approaching other teens. He or she may feel "different" from others. Although most teens place emphasis on being and looking "cool," teens with Asperger's may find it frustrating and emotionally draining to try to fit in. They may be immature for their age and be naive and too trusting, which can lead to teasing and bullying.

All of these difficulties can cause teens with Asperger's to become withdrawn and socially isolated and to have depression or anxiety. 3

But some teens with Asperger's syndrome are able to make and keep a few close friends through the school years. Some of the classic Asperger's traits may also work to the benefit of your teen. Teens with Asperger's are typically uninterested in following social norms, fads, or conventional thinking, allowing creative thinking and the pursuit of original interests and goals. Their preference for rules and honesty may lead them to excel in the classroom and as citizens.

Symptoms in adulthood

Asperger's syndrome is a lifelong condition, although it tends to stabilize over time, and improvements are often seen. Adults usually obtain a better understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses. They are able to learn social skills and how to read others' social cues. Many people with Asperger's syndrome marry and have children.

Some traits that are typical of Asperger's syndrome, such as attention to detail and focused interests, can increase chances of university and career success. Many people with Asperger's seem to be fascinated with technology, and a common career choice is engineering. But scientific careers are by no means the only areas where people with Asperger's excel. Indeed, many respected historical figures have had symptoms of Asperger's, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, and Thomas Jefferson.

Other conditions

Many children with Asperger's syndrome also have coexisting conditions and may have symptoms of these conditions also. They include

I hope this health article will be give you more information about Asperger s Syndrome Symptoms, all of information I take from other site,

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Cholesterol Types

Cholesterol Types - Cholesterol has many types. The two big components are called LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein). And simplistically, we talk about the LDL being the bad cholesterol and the HDL being the good cholesterol.

Cholesterol is a blood fat needed by the body in moderate amounts. However, high cholesterol(http://www.vasacor.com/) levels can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Angina is chest pain caused by the restriction of blood flow to the heart (cardiac ischemia). Nitrates may be used to relieve angina.


Most people will have cholesterol blood tests regularly, including triglycerides, HDL (http://www.cholesterol-reduction.org/treatment/increasing-good-cholesterol.html), LDL and total cholesterol. Methods for increasing good cholesterol or lowering cholesterol levels (http://www.cholesterol-reduction.org/cholesterol/cholesterol-levels.html) may include cholesterol reducing drugs, such as statins, fibrates, niacin (nicotinic acid) and bile acid resins. However, these drugs do not reverse calcification. A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries become blocked. Cholesterol has many types. The two big components are called LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein). And simplistically, we talk about the LDL being the bad cholesterol and the HDL being the good cholesterol.


That means that the bad cholesterol tends to accumulate in the arteries, tends to form plaques, tends to be the precursor to what eventually might end up being a heart attack.


The good cholesterol actually acts in part in reversing the cholesterol transport, takes cholesterol out of the plaque in the artery and may return it to the circulation, to the liver, to be excreted. So these are the two major categories, but within each one there are different particles, different cholesterols, different lipoproteins that carry the cholesterol, and they are differentially difficult players.


Some of the LDL cholesterol, i.e., the bad cholesterol, is worse than others. And it tends to be the small particle size that is very dense. You can think of the cholesterol particles as marbles, maybe, the small dense ones, and the larger, lighter ones might be ping-pong balls. And so the small marble ones are more dangerous.


On the other side, HDL the good cholesterol, posseses some components that are better than the others. So cholesterol is quite a complicated subject, and we're developing more and more therapies that aim not just at the total cholesterol, but in altering the good and the bad.

Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Halve Your Risk Of Breast Cancer?

Halve Your Risk Of Breast Cancer - We hear it all the time…lose weight for your health. Few people however, realize the extent to which this is critical to their physical well-being and ultimately their life expectancy.

In January 2003, the Journal of the American Medical Association featured a study finding that obesity appears to lessen life expectancy, especially among young adults. The researchers compared Body-Mass Index (BMI) to longevity and found a correlation between premature death and higher BMIs. For example, a 20-year-old white male, 5’10” weighing 288 pounds with a BMI of greater than 40 was estimated to lose 13 years of his life as a result of obesity.Jamie McManus, M.D., F.A.A.F.P. and author of “Your Personal Guide to Wellness” notes that while this study referenced extreme levels of obesity, there are still millions of overweight people in developed countries with a life expectancy rate that is three to five years less than their healthy-weight counterparts. She also estimates that there are 600,000 obesity related deaths each year in America.

Just how does obesity shorten our lifespan? The answer to this question is complex, yet there is a clear link between obesity and the development of cancer. An extensive study conducted by the American Cancer Institute involving 750,000 people showed that obesity significantly increased the risk of cancer developing in the following organs: breast, colon, ovaries, uterus, pancreas, kidneys and gallbladder.

Michael Thun, MD, vice-president of epidemiology and surveillance research for the American Cancer Society (ACS) says one reason obesity may raise cancer risk is because fat cells produce a form of estrogen called estradiol that promotes rapid division of cells, increasing chances of a random genetic error while cells are replicating, which can lead to cancer. In addition, fat centered around the abdomen may increase insulin and insulin-like growth factors in the blood, which may increase cancer risk.

"Women who are obese after menopause have a 50% higher relative risk of breast cancer," notes Thun, "and obese men have a 40% higher relative risk of colon cancer…. Gallbladder and endometrial cancer risks are five times higher for obese individuals”.There is evidence that cancer rates in developed countries are increasing at 5 to 15 times faster than developing countries. A major contributor to this alarming reality has proven to be diet. In populations where the diet consists mostly of fresh fruit and vegetables and whole grains – in contrast to the typical Western diet of fatty meats, refined flours, oils and sugars – the risk of cancer is much lower.

The interaction of diet and the development of cancer is an active field of research and Dr David Heber, M.D., Ph.D. and author of “What Color is Your Diet”, says “It appears that diet has its most significant effects after the cancer has already formed, acting to inhibit or stimulate the growth of that cancer”. At the risk of oversimplifying a complex set of interactions, the typical Western diet that leads to obesity may actually act to stimulate the growth of cancer cells.It is never too late to improve your health through healthful eating and adopting a more health-giving lifestyle. Here are simple steps to follow which can make an immediate improvement to your health and vitality.

1. Check your Body Mass Index (BMI) to determine if weight has become health risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60% of Americans are overweight, defined as having a BMI (a ratio of height to weight) over 25. Of those, nearly half (27%) qualify as obese, with a body mass index of 30 or more. In 1980, just 15% of Americans were considered obese. You can check your BMI at the website below.

2. Match your diet to your body’s requirements. If you eat and drink more calories than your body requires you will put on weight. Learn to control calories and portion sizes, make recipes leaner, and eat infrequently from fast food restaurants. Also learn how to snack with healthful choices.

3. Color your diet with a large variety of colorful, cancer-fighting fruit and vegetables. There are seven different color ranges of both fruit and vegetables and by choosing between 5 to 9 daily serves from a wide range of fruit and vegetables, we are extending our consumption of cancer (and other disease) fighting nutrients.

4. Eat lean protein with every meal. Protein provides a powerful signal to the brain providing a longer sense of fullness. The right source of protein is essential to controlling your hunger with fewer calories and necessary to maintain your lean muscle mass. Choices of protein should be flavored soy shakes with fruit; the white meat of chicken and turkey, seafood such as shrimps, prawns scallops and lobster and ocean fish or vegetarians may prefer soy based meat substitutes.

5. Rev up your metabolism with activity. If you want to enjoy a lifetime of well-being, exercise is a key ingredient. Colleen Doyle, MS, RD, director of nutrition and physical activity for the American Cancer Society (ACS), says adults should do something for 30 minutes each day that takes as much effort as a brisk walk. Children should be active for an hour each day. We are more likely to develop habits around things we enjoy, so seek activities which you enjoy doing. It is also helpful to build physical activity into your daily routine: use the stairs instead of the escalator or lift at work, park your car in the parking bay furthest from the super marketing and don’t use the remote control to change TV channels.

6. Get support to ensure you develop a healthful eating plan and reach your goal weight. Whilst a small percentage of people possess the discipline to lose weight, many obese people have developed strong thoughts and habits concerning the food they eat. In order to establish new habits, most people respond well to some form of consistent encouragement and coaching. A study, “Effects of Internet Behavioral Counseling on Weight Loss in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes” shows that participants who had the support of weight loss coaching lost more weight than those who didn’t. The study concluded that the support of a weight loss coach can significantly improve weight loss results.

Being overweight or obese has been identified next to smoking, as the most preventable major risk to developing cancer. Even small weight losses have been shown to have beneficial health effects. So it’s never to late to start and you can never be too young or too old to be concerned about your health and do something about achieving a more healthy weight.

(c) 2003 Kim Beardsmore

Possible Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

Leukemia is a disease that is considered to be life-threatening. It requires prompt intervention when discovered, in order to maximize the chances of recovering through specific treatment and therapy. Leukemia is basically a type of cancer of the bone marrow and blood, caused by inappropriate cellular activity. The disease can be of different forms, according to the types of blood cells that cause its development. Also, if leukemia is developing rapidly, it is called acute leukemia, while if the disease is developing slowly, it is referred to as chronic leukemia.

The direct leukemia causes are still unknown. In present, medical science isn’t able to establish the specific leukemia causes. However, a strong connection between certain genetic factors and the development of the disease has been revealed. Leukemia occurs on the background of genetic failure that causes the excessive production of incomplete, partially matured blood cells. Also, leukemia has a hereditary character, allowing the transmission of genetic predispositions to disease from one generation to another. Although many factors are known to contribute to the development of leukemia, they alone can’t be considered leukemia causes.

Despite the fact that statistics indicate a higher incidence of the disease in people that are exposed to some environmental factors of risk, leukemia doesn’t seem to be caused by neither of them in particular. Among the environmental factors that are thought to be leukemia causes, here are some of the most plausible ones:

- Smoking – smoking is thought to increase the chances of being affected by leukemia. Although statistics show that around 20 percent of acute leukemia cases are related to smoking, leukemia also occurs to people that don’t smoke and therefore it can’t be considered a leukemia cause on itself;

- Prolonged exposure to radiation – Radiation is considered to facilitate the development of leukemia. It is believed that exposure to X-rays can be a leukemia cause;

- Prolonged exposure to benzene – statistics reveal that this is a major factor of risk in some forms of leukemia, such as myelogenous leukemia;

- Chemotherapy and cancer treatment – previous cancer treatments and chemotherapy are known to facilitate the occurrence and development of leukemia and can be considered plausible leukemia causes. Within a few years from the completion of chemotherapy and other treatments for certain forms of cancer, most people can develop leukemia.

Among the genetic factors that are considered to be leukemia causes, the following ones are thought to be the most important:

- chromosome abnormalities – some rare genetic syndromes are known to contribute to leukemia causes;

- Immune system genetic problems - a weak immune system is very likely to facilitate the occurrence of leukemia and therefore can be considered a leukemia cause;

- Down syndrome – children born with this syndrome have a very high risk of developing acute leukemia.

The list of possible leukemia causes can continue further, but these are the most common factors that are considered to be interrelated with leukemia. While some of them can be prevented, others reside within the genes and in present can’t be corrected. In future, however, thanks to medical advance, we will probably be able to prevent leukemia and other forms of cancer.

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Alternative medicine cervical cancer prevention

Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in young women and is one of the most common causes of cancer deaths among women, particularly in minorities and
in impoverished countries. Like all cancers, cancer of the cervix is much more likely to be cured if it is detected early and treated immediately at its initial stage with the alternative medicine through natural medications with no side effects at our center.

Cancer of the cervix occurs when the cells of the cervix change in a way that leads to abnormal growth and invasion of other tissues or organs of the body.It is caused primarily by a sexually transmitted infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies have shown dietary intervention and nutrient supplementation to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. Additionally, local escharotic treatment combined with systemic treatment shows significant potential in reducing dysplasia

Cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix (organ connecting the uterus and vagina). It is usually a slow-growing cancer that may not have symptoms, but can be found with regular Pap smears (procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix and looked at under a microscope).

The uterine cervix is the lowest portion of a woman's uterus (womb). Most of the uterus lies in the pelvis, but part of the cervix is located in the vagina, where it connects the uterus with the vagina.
* One of the key features of cervical cancer is its slow progression from normal cervical tissue, to precancerous (or dysplastic) changes in the tissue, to invasive cancer.
* The slow progression through numerous precancerous changes is very important because it provides opportunities for prevention and early detection and treatment.

Other possible risk factors include the following:
* Giving birth to many children.
* Having many sexual partners.
* Having first sexual intercourse at a young age.
* Smoking cigarettes.
* Oral contraceptive use (the Pill).
* Weakened immune system.

Cervical cancers don't always spread, but those that do most often spread to the lungs, the liver, the bladder, the vagina, and/or the rectum.

Self-treatment is not appropriate for cancer under most circumstances. Without medical treatment, the cancer will continue to grow and spread. Eventually vital body organs will not be able to function properly because the cancer will take their oxygen and nutrients, crowd them out, or injure them. The result is very often death.

Although self-treatment is inappropriate, there are things you can do to reduce the physical and mental stresses of your cancer and its treatment.

Maintaining good nutrition is one of the best things you can do.
* You may lose your appetite during your treatment.
* Common side effects
* People who eat well, take in enough calories and protein.
* keeping up your calorie and protein intake.

The following lifestyle changes may help keep you stronger and more comfortable during treatment:
* Engage in mild physical activity
* Rest is equally important
* Quit smoking.
* Avoid alcohol.

Treatment of cervical cancer is directed at preventing precancerous cells from becoming cancerous cells.
* This is usually a step-by-step process
* The deepest cells must be removed

Cervical cancer begins with abnormal changes in the cervical tissue. The risk of developing these abnormal changes has been associated with certain factors, including previous infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), early sexual contact, multiple sexual partners, cigarette smoking and taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills).

Treatment of cervical cancer is directed at preventing precancerous cells from becoming cancerous cells.The key to preventing invasive cervical cancer is to detect any cell changes early, before they become cancerous. Regular pelvic examinations and Pap smears are the best way to do this.

Avoidance of human papillomavirus infection is becoming increasingly important in the prevention of precancerous and cancerous changes of the cervix.
* Early age at first intercourse is associated with increased risk
* Likewise, barrier protection, such as condom use, may prevent HPV infection, although this has not yet been fully studied.
* Early tests found an experimental vaccine to be effective against the virus responsible for half of all cases of cervical cancer.
*. Quitting smoking may decrease your chances of developing cervical cancer.
* Genetic material that comes from certain forms of HPV has been found in cervical tissues that show cancerous or precancerous changes.
* These findings demonstrate a strong link between the virus and cervical cancer.
* Because HPV can be transmitted by sexual contact, early sexual contact and having multiple sexual partners have been identified as strong risk factors for the development of cervical lesions that may progress to cancer.

Possible signs of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.These and other symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
* Vaginal bleeding.
* Unusual vaginal discharge.
* Pelvic pain.
* Pain during sexual intercourse.

Tests that examine the cervix are used to detect (find) and diagnose cervical cancer.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

Treatment options depend on the following:
* The stage of the cancer.
* The size of the tumor.
* The patient's desire to have children.
* The patient’s age.
* The type of cervical cancer.

Treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy depends on the stage of the cancer and the stage of the pregnancy. For cervical cancer found early or for cancer found during the last trimester of pregnancy, treatment may be delayed until after the baby is born.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Breast Cancer - Estrogen Dominance & The Imbalance Of Hormones

Estrogen Dominance is a term coined by the late John R. Lee, M.D., author of a number of books on the topic of women's hormones. The theory of Estrogen Dominance describes a condition where a woman can have deficient, normal or excessive estrogen but has little or no progesterone to balance its effects in the body. Even a woman with low estrogen levels can have estrogen dominance symptoms if she doesn't have any progesterone. Basically estrogen dominance reflects hormones that have gone out of balance. Out of balance hormones can affect women from 14 to 94.

How do we become estrogen dominant? Our food chain is laced with toxic pesticides, herbicides and growth hormones - a sea of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that mimic estrogen in the body. If we are overweight, our body's store of excess fat can be converted into estrogen. Insulin resistance also leads to estrogen dominance. Then there is estrogen found in ERT, HRT and Birth Control Pills.

Estrogen dominance also occurs in men. As men age, estrogen gradually rises, while saliva levels of progesterone and testosterone gradually fall. We often find men of fifty having higher saliva estrogen levels than women of fifty! A sign of estrogen dominance in men is the tendency for some to develop breasts.

An imbalance of hormones in our bodies results in hormone-related health problems such as PMS, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, infertility, post-partum depression, weight gain, increased blood clotting, thyroid dysfunction, even breast and uterine cancer in women and in men breast cancer, prostate problems and prostate cancer.

Estrogen Dominance can be detected by taking a saliva test. This simple test can accurately reveal hormone levels. Men can also take this simple at-home test to determine if their hormones are out of balance.

A saliva test evaluation will either move a man or woman to take action to bring balance to their own hormones or cause them to sit back and reflect on their good hormone health. Those over 50 can take an annual saliva test to keep track of their hormone levels.

Men and women who experience hormone imbalance feel unwell - bringing balance to their hormones is often a key to their wellness. There are safe natural alternatives available to drug therapies. Women and men must become more informed about their own hormone health.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

Female Hair Loss Vitamins

Hair loss is one of the most common problems, and also the most difficult to tackle. While healthy hair indicates good general health, hair loss can be an indicator of a deeper internal health problem. Hair loss in women has been attributed to several factors till now: stress, lack of iron or anemia, condition of the scalp, condition of vital internal organs like the kidneys, liver, thyroid etc., emotional disturbances, menstrual problems, illness or lack of essential vitamins and other nutrients in the body etc.

Hair loss generally indicates a deficiency in vitamin B1, vitamin C, lysine and iron. Vitamin C’s antioxidant properties help to make skin and hair healthy by aiding body metabolism, and converting fat and carbohydrates into energy. It helps in the development of healthy collagen that binds tissues together. Hence it is effective in preventing breakage and split ends. Vitamin C is present in good quantities in Citrus fruits, strawberries, pineapple, tomatoes, green peppers, potatoes and most dark green vegetables. A daily dose of 60 mg is recommended for good health. Vitamin B1 or Thiamine aids in protein building and thus makes the hair healthy, giving it volume, shine and a good texture. This is ensured by providing nutrition to the scalp. Other vitamins that help to prevent hair loss in women are: other Vitamin B complex vitamins like Biotin, Inositol, Niacin and vitamin E. Minerals like iron, zinc, magnesium are also effective in preventing hair loss. The most common food-based sources of these vitamins are: citrus fruits, green vegetables, fruits like pineapple, strawberries, kiwi, potatoes, green peppers, vegetable oils, soybean, raw seeds, dried beans, wheat germ oil, brewer’s yeast, whole grains, eggs, liver, rice, milk, fish, turkey, chicken and red meat. Other products found to be efficient in combating hair loss are Saw Palmetto, nettle root, pumpkin, gotu kola, eleuthero, Uva-Ursi, Muria Puama and others.


There are hundreds of products in the market today that promise to prevent hair loss. These products are generally prescribed by experts though some over the counter drugs are also available. There are companies that specialize exclusively in the production of hair loss drugs. Information about these products is also available on the Internet on the websites of these companies. However, it is better to consult a physician to know the exact cause of hair loss before using any of these products.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

How is Diabetes Managed?

How is Diabetes Managed Diabetes is a killer. Read this article to understand how to manage this terrible disease.Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone with type 1 diabetes died within a few years after diagnosis. Although insulin is not considered a cure, its discovery was the first major breakthrough in diabetes treatment.

Today, healthy eating, physical activity, and taking insulin are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. The amount of insulin must be balanced with food intke and daily activities. Blood glucose levels must be closely monitored through frequent blood glucose checking. People with diabetes also monitor blood glucose levels several times a year with a laboratory test called the A1C. Results of the A1C test reflect average blood glucose over a 2- to 3-month period.

Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic management tools for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require oral medication, insulin, or both to control their blood glucose levels.

Adults with diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact, at least 65 percent of those with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke. Managing diabetes is more than keeping blood glucose levels under control--it is also important to manage blood pressure and cholesterol levels through healthy eating, physical activity, and use of medications (if needed). By doing so, those with diabetes can lower their risk. Aspirin therapy, if recommended by the health care team, and smoking cessation can also help lower risk.

People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. Much of the daily care involves keeping blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. When blood glucose levels drop too low--a ccondition known as hypoglycemia--a person can become nervous, shaky, and confused. Judgment can be impaired, and if blood glucose falls too low, fainting can occur.

A person can also become ill if blood glucose levels rise too high, a condition known as hyperglycemia.

People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control. Most people with diabetes get care from primary care physicians--internists, family practice doctors, or pediatricians. Often, having a team of providers can improve diabetes care. A team can include:

- a primary care provider such as an internist, a family practice doctor, or a pediatrician

- an endocrinologist (a specialist in diabetes care)

- a dietitian, a nurse, and other health care providers who are certified diabetes educators--experts in providing information about managing diabetes

- a podiatrist (for foot care)

- an ophthalmologist or an optometrist (for eye care)

and other health care providers, such as cardiologists and other specialists. In addition, the team for a pregnant woman with type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes should include an obstetrician who specializes in caring for women with diabetes. The team can also include a pediatrician or a neonatologist with experience taking care of babies born to women with diabetes.

The goal of diabetes management is to keep levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as close to the normal range as safely possible. A major study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), showed that keeping blood glucose levels close to normal reduces the risk of developing major complications of type 1 diabetes.

This 10-year study, completed in 1993, included 1,441 people with type 1 diabetes. The study compared the effect of two treatment approaches--intensive management and standard management--on the development and progression of eye, kidney, nerve, and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Intensive treatment aimed to keep A1C levels as close to normal (6 percent) as possible. Researchers found that study participants who maintained lower levels of blood glucose through intensive management had significantly lower rates of these complications. More recently, a follow-up study of DCCT participants showed that the ability of intensive control to lower the complications of diabetes has persisted more than 10 years after the trial ended.

The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, a European study completed in 1998, showed that intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced the risk of blindness, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack in people with type 2 diabetes.